Lab Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. recognize bones and bone markings for the axial and appendicular skeleton

  2. recognize bones disarticulated and/or articulated

  3. identify bones articulate with one another


                I. AXIAL SKELETON
                   1. Skull Picture Picture Picture Picture Picture
                      A. cranial bones
                         (1) frontal
                             (a) sinus
                             (b) supra-orbital margin (ridge)
                             (c) supra-orbital foramen (may look like notch)
                             (d) coronal suture (between frontal and anterior border of parietals)

                             (e) glabella
                         (2) parietal
                             (a) sagittal suture (between the two parietals)
                             (b) lambdoid suture (between posterior parietals and occipital bone)
                             (c) squamous suture (between parietals and squamous of temporal)
                         (3) occipital
                             (a) occipital condyles
                             (b) foramen magnum
                             (c) superior and inferior nuchal lines
(d) external occipital protuberance
                         (4) temporal
                             (a) external acoustic (auditory) meatus
                             (b) mastoid process
                             (c) styloid process
                             (d) petrous portion
                             (e) zygomatic process                             
(f) jugular foramen
                             (g) carotid canal                            
                             (h) internal acoustic meatus
                             (i) foramen lacerum
                         (5) sphenoid
                             (a) greater and lesser wings
                             (b) pterygoid processes
                             (c) sella turcica
                             (d) optic canal
                             (e) foramen ovale                            
(f) superior orbital fissure
                         (6) ethmoid
                             (a) perpendicular plate
                             (b) crista galli
                             (c) cribriform (horizontal) plate
                             (d) middle nasal concha

                             (e) superior nasal concha (visible only on sagittal head model)                                              
                       B. Facial bones
                         (1) nasal bones
                         (2) lacrimal bones
                         (3) zygomatic bones
                             (a) orbital process
                             (b) temporal process
                             (c) maxillary process
                         (4) maxilla
                             (a) alveolar margin
                             (b) infra-orbital foramen
                             (c) palatine processes

                             (d) inferior orbital fissure
                         (5) palatine bones
                         (6) mandible
                             (a) ramus
                             (b) mandibular condyle
                             (c) mandibular angle
                             (d) body
                             (e) coronoid process
                             (f) alveolar margin
                             (g) mental foramen
                         (7) vomer
                         (8) inferior nasal concha
 C. Paranasal sinuses
a.  frontal
                              b.  ethmoid
                              c.  sphenoid
d.  maxillary

                  2.hyoid bone Picture

                  3. ribs (compare first rib to others; also compare floating ribs) Picture

                      A.  head

                      B.  shaft

                      C.  tubercle
                   4. sternum
                       A. manubrium
                       B. jugular notch
                       C. sternal angle
                       D. body
                       E. xiphoid process
                       F. clavicular notch


          5. Vertebrae: for each vertebrae be able to identify the following structures: lamina, pedicles, centrum (body), spinous process, superior

                                 and  inferior articulating processes, transverse process, vertebral foramen, and intervertebral foramen.
                       A. cervical (7)
                           (1) transverse foramina
                           (2) C1 = atlas Picture
                           (3) C2 = axis with odontoid process (Dens)
                       B. thoracic (12)
                           (1) coastal facets on the centrum 
                       C. lumbar (5)
                       D. sacral: (5) fused to form the sacrum Picture Picture
                           (1) sacral canal
                           (2) sacroiliac joint
                           (3) sacral foramen
                           (4) median sacral crest
                           (5) sacral hiatus (only visible on real skeletons)
                           (6) sacral promontory
                           (7) apex
                           (8) ala
                       E. coccyx: (1-4) fused bones

             II. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (Blank Diagrams)
1. Pectoral Girdle
                       A. scapula  (right or left) Picture Picture
                          (1) coracoid process
                          (2) acromion process
                          (3) spine
                          (4) supraspinous fossa
                          (5) infraspinous fossa
                          (6) glenoid cavity (fossa)
                          (7) subscapular fossa
                          (8) suprascapular notch
                     (9) vertebral (medial) border
                          (10) axillary (lateral) border
                          (11) inferior angle

                  (12) superior angle

                  (13) lateral angle
                      B. clavicle Picture
                          (1) acromial end
                          (2) sternal end

                  2. Bones of upper extremity: arm and forearm
                      A. humerus  (right or left)
                          (1) head
                          (2) neck: surgical and anatomical
                          (3) greater and lesser tubercles  (tuberosities)
                          (4) intertubercular sulcus (groove)
                          (5) deltoid tuberosity
                          (6) medial and lateral epicondyles
                          (7) trochlea
                          (8) capitulum
                          (9) olecranon fossa
                          (10) coronoid fossa
                      B. radius
                          (1) head and (2) neck
                          (3) shaft
                          (4) styloid process
                          (5) ulnar notch

                  (6) radial tuberosity
                      C. ulna
                          (1) olecranon process
                          (2) trochlear notch
                          (3) radial notch
                          (4) coronoid process
                          (5) head
                          (6) styloid process

                   3. Bones of upper extremity, wrist and hand
                       A. carpals (8) Picture

                   (1) scaphoid

                   (2) lunate

                   (3) triquetral

                   (4) pisiform

                   (5) trapezium

                   (6) trapezoid

                   (7) capitate

                   (8) hamate
                       B. metacarpals (numbered 1-5)
                       C. phalanges (14)
                           (1) proximal
                           (2) middle (not present in the pollex)
                           (3) distal

                  4. Pelvic girdle (os coxae) Picture Picture
                      A. ilium
                           (1) iliac crest
                           (2) anterior superior and inferior iliac spine (ASIS/AIIS)
                           (3) posterior superior and inferior iliac spine (PSIS/PIIS)
                           (4) iliac fossa
                           (5) sacroiliac joint (only present in articulated skeleton)
                           (6) greater sciatic notch
                       B. ischium
                           (1) ischial spine
                           (2) lesser sciatic notch
                           (3) ischial tuberosity
                       C. pubis
                           (1) pubic rami (superior and inferior)
                           (2) pubic symphysis
                       D. acetabulum (acetabular fossa)
                       E. obturator foramen 

                   5. Bones of thigh and leg
                       A. femur (right or left)
                           (1) head
                           (2) fovea capitis
                           (3) neck
                           (4) greater and lesser trochanter
                           (5) gluteal tuberosity
                           (6) shaft
                           (7) linea aspera
                           (8) medial and lateral epicondyles
                           (9) medial and lateral condyles
                           (10) intercondylar fossa
                           (11) patellar surface
                       B. tibia (right or left)
                           (1) tibial condyles (lateral and medial)
                           (2) intercondylar eminence
                           (3) medial malleolus
                           (4) shaft
                           (5) tibial tuberosity
                       C. fibula
                           (1) head
                           (2) shaft
                           (3) lateral malleolus
                       D. patella Picture

                   6. Bones of ankle and foot Picture
                       A. tarsals (7)
                           (1) talus
                           (2) calcaneus

                   (3) navicular

                   (4) medial cuneiform

                   (5) intermediate cuneiform

                   (6) lateral cuneiform

                   (7) cuboid
                       B. metatarsals (5) (numbered 1-5)
                       C. phalanges (14)
                           (1) proximal
                           (2) middle (not present in the hallux)
                           (3) distal


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