Introduction to Medical Microbiology

Exam #1 Study Guide



Introduction/History (see chapter questions 1,2,5,6,8,10,13,14,15)

1. Be able to define microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, biotechnology, and genetic engineering

2. Be able to list the examples of microorganisms and define pathogens and viruses

3. Be able to identify the people of historical significance and what each oneÕs contribution to microbiology was

4. Know the difference between hypothesis and theory and define Taxonomy, Identification, Classification, and Nomenclature

5. Know the difference between Species and Domain and know the three Domains in which organisms are classified

6. Know the 3 rules of binomial system of nomenclature and who generated it



Chemistry of Biology/Tools of the Lab (see 1,2,7,8,13,15 in Ch.2 and 1,2,4,13,14,15 in Ch.3)

1. Define atom and know the difference between proton, neutron, and electron

2.  Know the basics of the pH scale, organic and inorganic chemicals, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, including examples if given

3. Know the the Five IÕs used to study microorganisms and the basics of each, including the definition of a colony, 2 methods used for isolation, and 3 types of cultures for inspection

4. Know how media is classified based on physical state (3 types plus definitions) and chemical content (2 types plus definitions)

5. Know the differences between general purpose, enriched, selective, and differential media (not examples)

6.  Know the difference between simple and compound microscopes and the basics of magnification, resolution, and contrast

7. Know the basic characteristics of the 5 different types of microscopes (bright-field, dark-field, etc.) and any special uses of each.

8. Know the purpose of a wet mount, the difference between positive and negative stains, and the basic characteristics of simple, differential, and special stains (including examples)



Prokaryotic Cell Structure/Classification of Prokaryotes (see 2,3,4,5,7,8,10,11,14,15)

1.  Know the characteristics of prokaryotic cells

2. Know the function of the flagella and its 3 components and their descriptions.

3. Be able to describe the 4 types of flagella arrangements

4. Know definition of chemotaxis, the difference between positive and negative chemotaxis, and be able to describe a run and tumble.

5. Be able to describe the structure and/or functions of pilus, fimbriae, glycocalyx, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, chromosome, plasmid, ribosomes, and storage granules.

6. Know the structural characteristics of Gram(+) and Gram (-) cell walls

7. Know the characteristics of endospores, the difference between a vegetative cell and endospore, and the general process of sporulation

8. Know descriptions of the basic bacterial shapes (bacillus, coccus, etc.).

9. Know the differences between Bacteria and Archaea

10. Be able to identify examples of gram (-) bacilli, gram (-) curved bacilli, gram (-) cocci, gram (+) bacilli, gram (+) cocci, acid-fast bacilli, and cell wall-less bacteria

11. Be able to define and give examples of obligate intracellular parasites, Enterobacteriaceae, spore-forming bacilli, and spirochetes

12. Know any specific characteristics of certain bacterial species if listed



Eukaryotic Organisms (see 1,3,4,5,6,13)

1. Know the characteristics of eukaryotic cells

2. Know the basic characteristics of fungi, including their methods of reproduction

3. Know 3 roles of fungi in medicine and industry, including the aspects of mycoses, and the 4 specific examples of fungi given

4. Know the basic characteristics of algae, the different types of reproduction, and the diseases they cause

5. Know the basic characteristics of protozoans and be able to identify examples of protozoans based on their mode of locomotion (Flagellated, Amoeboid, etc)

6. Know the basic characteristics of helminthes and the general differences between Nematodes, Cestodes, and Trematodes

7. Be able to match each helminth with the name of the disease it causes and know the basic descriptions of the diseases (organs affected and methods of transmission)