Introduction to Medical Microbiology

Final Exam Study Guide 


Test 1

1. Be able to define microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, biotechnology, genetic engineering, and taxonomy

2. Be able to define pathogens, hypothesis, and theory

3. Be able to identify the people of historical significance and what each one’s contribution to microbiology was.

4. Know the three Domains in which organisms are classified.

5.  Know the basics of pH, organic and inorganic chemicals, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, including examples if given

6. Know the basic characteristics of the different types of microscopes (bright-field, dark-field, etc.) and any special uses of each.

7.  Know the characteristics of prokaryotic cells

8. Know the function of the flagella and its 3 components and their descriptions.

9. Be able to describe the structure and/or functions of fimbriae, pilus, glycocalyx, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, chromosome, plasmid, and ribosomes.

10. Know the main structural characteristics of Gram(+) and Gram (-) cell walls

11. Know the purpose and process of sporulation

12. Know descriptions of the basic bacterial shapes (bacillus, coccus, etc.).

13. Know the differences between Bacteria and Archaea.

14. Be able to define obligate intracellular parasites, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochetes and describe and/or give examples of Enterobacteriaceae, gram + spore-forming bacilli, gram + cocci, cell wall-less bacteria (sterols), and acid-fast bacilli (mycolic acid).

15. Know the characteristics of eukaryotic cells

16. Know the basic characteristics of fungi, algae, protozoans, and helminthes (not reproduction)




Test 2

1. Be able to define macronutrients, micronutrients, and growth factors.

2. Be able to describe bacterial classifications based on carbon source, energy source, carbon and energy sources, temperature, gas requirements, pH requirements, and osmotic pressure.

3. Be able to define binary fission and generation time

4. Know what the bacterial growth curve shows, the 4 phases of the growth curve and the basic properties of each phase.

5. Know the difference between anabolism and catabolism.

6. Know the basic characteristics of enzymes and ATP

7. Know the difference between endergonic and exergonic reactions and the basics of redox reactions (oxidation versus reduction)  

8. Know the 4 steps of aerobic respiration and the molecules that enter and exit each step.

9. Know the basics of the Electron Transport Chain.

10. Know the difference between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis.

11. Know where genetic material is located and the difference between genotype and phenotype.

12. Be able to describe the general structure of DNA and its characteristics, including base pairing rules.

13. Know the basics of DNA replication, transcription, and translation, and what is being created by each process.  Also know how RNA is different from DNA and the functions of each enzyme discussed.

14. Know the difference between spontaneous mutations, induced mutations, frameshift mutations and the 3 types of point mutations.

15. Know the characteristics of transduction, transformation, conjugation, and transposons.

16. Know the functions of restriction endonucleases and reverse transcriptase

17. Know the purpose of nucleic acid hybridization, polymerase chain reaction and DNA cloning.

18. Know the overall characteristics and components of a virus

19. Know the basic characteristics of the viral capsid, envelope, spikes, and nucleic acid.

20. Know the differences between bacteriophage and animal virus replication.

21. Know the difference between acute versus persistent infection and define inclusion bodies, syncytia, and oncoviruses.

22. Know the characteristics and components of prions and define viroids.

23. Be able to define decontamination, sterilization, disinfection, and sanitization.

24. Know the basic characteristics of each method of physical control and germicidal chemical listed (how they work)



Test 3

1. Know the 5 mechanisms of action of antibiotics and be able to give the main examples of each type

2. Know the 3 mechanisms of action of antiviral drugs and be able to give examples of the viruses that are targeted.

3. Be able to identify the 3 mechanisms of drug resistance and examples of organisms that that use those mechanisms.

4. Be able to define normal resident flora and 4 ways the host benefits from normal resident flora

5. Know the definitions of infection, disease, pathogens, pathogenicity, true pathogens, opportunistic pathogens, virulence, and infectious dose

6. Know 4 examples of exoenzymes and their function.

7. Know the characteristics and difference between endotoxin and exotoxin, and be able to identify 3 examples of exotoxins and their target tissue.

8. Know the difference between localized, focal, and systemic infections and be able to identify and define the 4 characteristics of systemic infection. Also know the definition of secondary infection.

9. Be able to define the 4 Phases of Infection and define reservoir, carrier, zoonotic diseases, and vector

10. Be able to differentiate between communicable  and non-communicable diseases, horizontal and vertical transmission, and direct and indirect contact

11. Know the definition of nosocomial infections and 5 common examples of nosocomial infections.

12. Know the definitions of Universal Precautions (UPS), epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, morbidity rate, mortality rate, index case, endemic disease, sporadic disease, epidemic disease, and pandemic

13. Be able to describe the three lines of defense and know the definition of antigen

14. Be able to identify 5 components of the first line of defense, the 3 major responsibilities of the immune system, and to define the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS).

15.  Be able to define hematopoiesis and know the different types of leukocytes:  Be able to identify 3 types of granulocytes, 2 examples of monocytes, and 3 examples of lymphocytes (specific characteristics of natural killer cells)

16. Be able to identify the 5 processes involved in the second line of defense

17. Know 4 important aspects of the third line of defense and be able to define Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and clonal selection.

18. Know the details involved in presentation of antigens.

19. Know the mechanisms of the 2 types of specific immunity in the third line of defense, including the specific cell types involved in each.

20. For antibody-mediated immunity, be able to differentiate between the 3 types of B cells and 5 classes of antibodies.

21. For cell-mediated immunity, know the 4 different types of T cells and details of each.

22. Be able to define the 4 types of immunity and the definition of vaccination and herd immunity.

23. Know the difference between attenuated and inactivated vaccines and be able to identify 3 types of subunit vaccines.

24. Be able to define serology and titer and to identify 6 examples of immunologic tests.

25. For Types I-IV hypersensitivities, know the general mechanism involved and examples given

26. Know the 4 types of transplants and their definitions, which types typically involve transplantation rejection, and the definition of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD).

27. Know the definition of autoimmune diseases and identify examples of diseases

28. Define immunodeficiency and know the difference between primary and secondary immunodeficiencies.



Test 4

1. Know the diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes and their general descriptions.

2. Know the causative agent, distinctive characteristics, identifiable stages, possible complications, and/or treatment for the following diseases:


Gas gangrene, Chicken pox, Smallpox, Measles, Rubella, and Warts


Meningitis (Meningococcal, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae,  Listeriosis, and Viral meningitis),  Epidemic encephalitis, Toxoplasmosis, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, Rabies, Polio, Tetanus, Botulism, and African sleeping sickness.


Subacute endocarditis, Gram-negative septicemia, Plague, Tularemia, Lyme disease, Infectious mononucleosis, Anthrax, Ebola and Marburg, Cat Scratch Disease, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Malaria, and AIDS.


Streptococcal pharyngitis, Diptheria, Whooping cough, Respiratory syncytial virus infection, Influenza, Tuberculosis, and Pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome)


 Dental caries, Mumps, Gastritis, Salmonellosis, Typhoid fever, Shigellosis, Shiga-toxin Producing E. coli (STEC), Campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, Cholera,  and

Hepatitis (A, B, C and D).


Bacterial Cystitis, Yeast infection, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, Genital Herpes, and Genital warts and Cervical cancer.