Designing a Diet


Diet Planning Principles:





Allium vegetables (garlic, onions, chives, leeks)

Allyl sulfides

Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale, turnips, bok choy, kohlrabi)

Indoles/glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates/thiocyanates,

Solanaceous vegetables (tomatoes, peppers)


Umbelliferous vegetables (carrots, celery, cilantro,parsley, parsnips)

Carotenoids, Phthalides,

Compositae plants (artichoke)


Citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, grapefruit)

Monoterpenes (limonene), Carotenoids,

Other fruits (grapes, berries, cherries, apples, cantaloupe, watermelon, pomegranate)

Ellagic acid , Phenols, Flavonoids (quercetin)

Beans, grains, seeds (soybeans, oats, barley, brown rice, whole wheat, flax seed)

Flavonoids (isoflavones), Phytic acid, Saponins, Protease inhibitors

Herbs, spices (ginger, mint, rosemary, thyme, oregano, sage, basil, tumeric, caraway, fennel)

Gingerols, Flavonoids, Monoterpenes (limonene)

Licorice root Green tea 

Glycyrrhizin, Catechins


Phytochemicals and Function:


Question: Does your diet reflect the diet planning principles? Is your diet full of phytochemicals?

Question: How do we know if we are getting enough of other needed nutrients?

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)


Question: if the public is not aware of the DRIs needed to maintain their health, then what guidelines exist to help them make food choices?

Daily Values


·        Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) – for minerals and vitamins

o       Uses highest RDA values set in 1968

·        Daily Reference Values (DRVs) – for protein and dietary components that have no RDA or other nutrient standard (fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sodium, and potassium)

o       Whatever the calorie level, DRVs for the energy-producing nutrients are always calculated as follows:

§         fat based on 30 percent of calories

§         saturated fat based on 10 percent of calories

§         carbohydrate based on 60 percent of calories

§         protein based on 10 percent of calories. (The DRV for protein applies only to adults and children over 4 - RDIs for protein for special groups have been established.)

§         fiber based on 11.5 g of fiber per 1,000 calories.

o       The DRVs for cholesterol, sodium and potassium, which do not contribute calories, remain the same whatever the calorie level


Food Choices - USDA

Questions: What is the driving force that initiated the development of this resource? Realistically speaking, how many people and what types of people access such a resource?

Food Labels


Free This term means that a product contains no amount of, or only trivial or "physiologically inconsequential" amounts of, one or more of these components: fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugars, and calories. For example, "calorie-free" means fewer than 5 calories per serving, and "sugar-free" and "fat-free" both mean less than 0.5 g per serving. Synonyms for "free" include "without," "no" and "zero." A synonym for fat-free milk is "skim".
Low This term can be used on foods that can be eaten frequently without exceeding dietary guidelines for one or more of these components: fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and calories. Thus, descriptors are defined as follows:
  • low-fat: 3 g or less per serving
  • low-saturated fat: 1 g or less per serving
  • low-sodium: 140 mg or less per serving
  • very low sodium: 35 mg or less per serving
  • low-cholesterol: 20 mg or less and 2 g or less of saturated fat per serving
  • low-calorie: 40 calories or less per serving.

Synonyms for low include "little," "few," "low source of," and "contains a small amount of."

Lean These terms can be used to describe the fat content of meat, poultry, seafood, and game meats.
  • lean: less than 10 g fat, 4.5 g or less saturated fat, and less than 95 mg cholesterol per serving and per 100 g.
  • extra lean: less than 5 g fat, less than 2 g saturated fat, and less than 95 mg cholesterol per serving and per 100 g.


High This term can be used if the food contains 20 percent or more of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient in a serving.
Good source This term means that one serving of a food contains 10 to 19 percent of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient.
Reduced This term means that a nutritionally altered product contains at least 25 percent less of a nutrient or of calories than the regular, or reference, product. However, a reduced claim can't be made on a product if its reference food already meets the requirement for a "low" claim.
Less This term means that a food, whether altered or not, contains 25 percent less of a nutrient or of calories than the reference food. For example, pretzels that have 25 percent less fat than potato chips could carry a "less" claim. "Fewer" is an acceptable synonym.
Light This descriptor can mean two things:
  • First, that a nutritionally altered product contains one-third fewer calories or half the fat of the reference food. If the food derives 50 percent or more of its calories from fat, the reduction must be 50 percent of the fat.
  • Second, that the sodium content of a low-calorie, low-fat food has been reduced by 50 percent. In addition, "light in sodium" may be used on food in which the sodium content has been reduced by at least 50 percent.
Healthy A "healthy" food must be low in fat and saturated fat and contain limited amounts of cholesterol and sodium. In addition, if it' s a single-item food, it must provide at least 10 percent of one or more of vitamins A or C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber. Exempt from this "10-percent" rule are certain raw, canned and frozen fruits and vegetables and certain cereal-grain products. These foods can be labeled "healthy," if they do not contain ingredients that change the nutritional profile, and, in the case of enriched grain products, conform to standards of identity, which call for certain required ingredients. If it's a meal-type product, such as frozen entrees and multi-course frozen dinners, it must provide 10 percent of two or three of these vitamins or minerals or of protein or fiber, in addition to meeting the other criteria. The sodium content cannot exceed 360 mg per serving for individual foods and 480 mg per serving for meal-type products
Organic Foods in which do not use chemical fertilizers or pesticides, genetic engineering, sewage sludge, antibiotics, or irradiation in their production