The Cardiovascular System (Blood Vessels)

I. Blood Vessels: Overview

A. Structure of Blood Vessel Walls Diagram Diagram Diagram

Arteries and Veins are composed of three distinct layers called tunics which surround the blood-containing space (lumen)

B. Arterial System - arteries are vessels that transport blood away from the heart and consists of three groups:

C. Venous System - blood is carried from the capillary beds toward the heart by veins

D. Capillaries - smallest blood vessels with thin walls consisting of only a tunica intima;

E. Capillary Exchange

Bulk Flow --> regulation of the relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid

Edema - filtration exceeds reabsorption resulting in increased interstitial fluid volume; causes include:

F. Hemodynamics - distribution of cardiac output depends on

Blood Pressure - hydrostatic pressure exerted by blood on the walls of a blood vessel; in aorta and large systemic arteries

Pressure differences:

Resistance - opposition to blood flow as a result of friction between blood and the walls of blood vessels

Friction depends on:

G. Control of Blood Pressure

Cardiovascular Center

1. Input - higher brain centers (cerebral cortex, limbic system, hypothalamus)

2. Output- vagus (X) nerve - decreases heart rate

Hormonal Regulation

II. Clinical Aspects

III. Blood Vessels

A. Arteries Diagram

  • ascending and descending aorta
  • aortic arch
  • braciocephalic
  • common carotid
  • internal/external carotid
  • vertebral
  • subclavian artery
  • axillary
  • brachial
  • radial ulnar
  • deep and superficial palmar
  • digital
  • celiac trunk: gastric, splenic, and hepatic
  • thoracic and abdominal aorta
  • superior mesenteric
  • renal
  • gonadal
  • inferior mesenteric
  • common iliac
  • external/internal mesenteric
  • femoral
  • popliteal
  • anterior/posterior tibial
  • arcuate

B. Veins Diagram

  • Superior vena cava
  • braciocephalic
  • external/internal jugular
  • vertebral
  • subclavian
  • axillary
  • cephalic
  • brachial
  • basilic
  • median cubital
  • ulnar
  • radial
  • digital
  • inferior vena cava
  • splenic
  • hepatic
  • renal
  • superior mesenteric
  • inferior mesenteric
  • common iliac
  • external/internal iliac
  • femoral
  • great saphenous
  • popliteal
  • anterior/posterior tibial
  • fibular
  • dorsal digital
  • dorsal venous arch

C. Cervical and cehalic vessels: Diagram

D. Thoracic blood vessels: Diagram

E. Brachial and antebrachial blood vessels: Diagram

F. Femoral, crural, and sural blood cells: Diagram